Radical Constructivism

Coined by Ernst von Glasersfeld (1974), Radical Constructivism (or “RC”) is “an unconventional approach to the problems of knowledge and knowing. It starts from the assumption that knowledge, no matter how it is defined, is in the heads of persons, and that the thinking subject has no alternative but to construct what he or she knows on the basis of his or her own experience. What we can make of experience constitutes the only world we consciously live in … all kinds of experience are essentially subjective, and though I may find reasons to believe that my experiences may not be unlike yours, I have no way of knowing that it is the same…” (Glasersfeld 1995: 1).
Glasersfeld defines the two principles of RC as follows: ”(1) a. Knowledge is not passively received either through the senses or by way of communication; b. knowledge is actively built up by the cognizing subject. (2) a. The function of cognition is adaptive, in the biological sense of the term, tending towards fit or viability; b. cognition serves the subject’s organization of the experiential world, not the discovery of an objective ontological reality.” (Glasersfeld 1995: 18).
^ Publication history
  • Version 1, Alexander Riegler, 12 December 2018
^ Recommended literature
Glasersfeld E. von (1984) An introduction to radical constructivism. In: Watzlawick P. (ed.) The invented reality. Norton, New York: 17–40. https://cepa.info/1279
Riegler A. (2001) Towards a radical constructivist understanding of science. Special Issue “The Impact of Radical Constructivism on Science” edited by Alexander Riegler. Foundations of Science 6(1–3): 1–30. https://cepa.info/1860
^ References
(G1974)  Glasersfeld E. von (1974) Piaget and the radical constructivist epistemology. In: Smock C. D. & Glasersfeld E. von (eds.) Epistemology and educationFollow Through Publications, Athens GA: 1–24. https://cepa.info/1324
(G1995)  Glasersfeld E. von (1995) Radical constructivism: A way of knowing and learning. Falmer Press, London. https://cepa.info/1462
Related publications (192)

Becerra G. (2014) El “constructivismo operativo” de Luhmann. Una caracterización relacional con el constructivismo de inspiración piagetiana y el constructivismo radical. Enfoques 26(2): 29–54. https://cepa.info/4527

Bednarz N. & Proulx J. (2011) Ernst von Glasersfeld’s Contribution and Legacy to a Didactique des Mathématiques Research Community. Constructivist Foundations 6(2): 239–247. https://cepa.info/206

Belbase S. (2014) Radical versus social constructivism: An epistemological-pedagogical dilemma. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research 1(2): 98–112. https://cepa.info/2616

Binczyk E. (2008) Looking for Consistency in Avoiding Dualisms. Constructivist Foundations 3(3): 201–208. https://cepa.info/99

Brier S. (2009) Cybersemiotic Pragmaticism and Constructivism. Constructivist Foundations 5(1): 19-39. https://cepa.info/141

Canaparo C. (2012) Migration and radical constructivist epistemology. Crossings Journal of Migration and Culture 3(2): 181–200. https://cepa.info/5410

Cardellini L. & Glasersfeld E. von (2006) The foundations of radical constructivism: An interview with Ernst von Glasersfeld. Foundations of Chemistry 8: 177–187. https://cepa.info/1558

Castañon G. (2015) O que é construtivismo? [What is constructivism?]. Cadernos de História e Filosofia da Ciência, Campinas (Série 4) 1(2): 209–242. https://cepa.info/5961

Castañon G. A. (2005) Construtivismo e ciências humanas. Ciências e Cognição 5: 36–49. https://cepa.info/5963

Cobb P. & Glasersfeld E. von (1984) Jean Piaget’s scheme and constructivism. The Genetic Epistemologist 13(2): 9–15. https://cepa.info/1375

Cyzman M. & Bohuszewicz P. (2016) Wokół pojęcia konstruktywizmu [About the concept of constructivism]. Litteraria Copernicana 3(19): 7–14. https://cepa.info/5164

Cyzman M. (2016) Po “tamtej stronie” interpretacji: Koncepcja interpretacji Ernsta von Glasersfelda i Josefa Mitterera [On the “other side” of interpretation: The interpretation concept of Ernst von Glasersfeld and Josef Mitterer]. Litteraria Copernicana 3(19): 73–86. https://cepa.info/5435

Floyd C. (1992) Software development as reality construction. In: Floyd C., Züllighoven. H., Budde R. & Keil-Slawik R. (eds.) Software development and reality constructionSpringer-Verlag, Berlin: 86–100. https://cepa.info/3997

Foerster H. von & Glasersfeld E. von (1999) Wie wir uns erfinden. Eine Autobiographie des radikalen Konstruktivismus [How we invent ourselves: An autobiography of radical constructivism]. Carl Auer, Heidelberg. https://cepa.info/1509

Gadenne V. (2017) Ist der Konstruktivismus selbstwidersprüchlich. In: Kanzian C., Kletzl S., Mitterer J. & Neges K. (eds.) Realism – relativism – constructivismDe Gruyter, Berlin: 31–43. https://cepa.info/4201

Gash H. & Glasersfeld E. von (1978) Vico (1668–1744): An early anticipator of radical constructivism. The Irish Journal of Psychology 4(1): 22–32. https://cepa.info/1344

Gash H. (1974) The constructivist epistemology in John Dewey, Jean Piaget, and Cognitive developmental psychology. In: Smock C. D. & Glasersfeld E. von (eds.) Epistemology and educationFollow Through Publications, Athens GA: 27–44. https://cepa.info/2181

Gash H. (2011) Maturana, ethics and constructivism. In: Lasker G. E. & Hiwaki K. (eds.) Personal and spiritual development in the world of cultural diversity. Vol VIII.IIAS, Tecumseh Ontario: 15–19. https://cepa.info/2613

Gash H. (2013) Models of ethics. In: G. E. Lasker & K. Hiwaki. (eds.) Personal and Spiritual Development in a World of Cultural Diversity. Vol XIIAS, Tecumseh Ontario: 7–11. https://cepa.info/2609

Gash H. (2015) Systems and values.. In: G. E. Lasker & K. Hiwaki (eds.) Personal and Spiritual Development in the World of Cultural Diversity. Vol XIl.International Institute for Advanced Studies, Tecumseh Ontario: 7–11. https://cepa.info/2418

Gash H. (2017) Attitudes and identity: From von Glasersfeld to Kahneman. In: Lasker G. E. & Hiwaki K. (eds.) Personal & spiritual development in the world of cultural diversityIIAS, Tecumseh Ontario Canada: 45–50. https://cepa.info/4217

Glanville R. & Riegler A. (2007) Editorial: Ninety Years of Constructing. Constructivist Foundations 2(2-3): 2–4. https://cepa.info/19

Glasersfeld E. von & Ackermann E. K. (1997) Heinz von Foerster zum 85. Geburtstag. In: Müller A., Müller K. H. & Stadler F. (eds.) Konstruktivismus und KognitionswissenschaftSpringer, Vienna. https://cepa.info/1491

Glasersfeld E. von & Stadler M. (2000) Wir machen, was wir sehen. Lockere Einführung in den Konstruktivismus [We make what we see. A casual introduction to constructivism]. In: Heute ist Morgen [Today is tomorrow]Kunst und Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik, Bonn: 137–149. https://cepa.info/1523

Glasersfeld E. von (1974) Piaget and the radical constructivist epistemology. In: Smock C. D. & Glasersfeld E. von (eds.) Epistemology and educationFollow Through Publications, Athens GA: 1–24. https://cepa.info/1324

Glasersfeld E. von (1979) Cybernetics, experience, and the concept of self. In: Ozer M. N. (ed.) A cybernetic approach to the assessment of children: Toward a more humane use of human beingsWestview Press, Boulder CO: 67–113. https://cepa.info/1346

Glasersfeld E. von (1979) Radical constructivism and Jean Piaget’s concept of knowledge. In: Murray F. B. (ed.) The impact of Piagetian theoryUniversity Park Press, Baltimore MD: 109–122. https://cepa.info/1340

Glasersfeld E. von (1979) Reflections on John Fowles’ “The Magus” and the construction of reality. The Georgia Review 33(2): 444–448. https://cepa.info/1347

Glasersfeld E. von (1980) The concept of equilibration in a constructivist theory of knowledge. In: Benseler F., Hejl P. M. & Koeck W. K. (eds.) Autopoiesis, communication, and societyCampus, Frankfurt/New York: 75–85. https://cepa.info/1352

Glasersfeld E. von (1980) Viability and the concept of selection. American Psychologist 35(11): 970–974. https://cepa.info/1350

Glasersfeld E. von (1981) An epistemology for cognitive systems. In: Roth G. & Schwegler H. (eds.) Self-organizing systemsCampus, Frankfurt: 121–131. https://cepa.info/1358

Glasersfeld E. von (1981) Einführung in den radikalen Konstruktivismus. In: Watzlawick P. (ed.) Die erfundene WirklichkeitPiper, Munich: 16–38. https://cepa.info/1360

Glasersfeld E. von (1981) The concepts of adaptation and viability in a constructivist theory of knowledge. In: Sigel I. E., Brodzinsky D. M. & Golinkoff R. M. (eds.) New directions in Piagetian theory and practiceErlbaum, Hillsdale NJ: 87–95. https://cepa.info/1357

Glasersfeld E. von (1982) An interpretation of Piaget’s constructivism. Revue Internationale de Philosophie 36(4): 612–635. https://cepa.info/1367

Glasersfeld E. von (1984) Konstruktivistische Diskurse. LUMIS-Schriften 2. https://cepa.info/1378

Glasersfeld E. von (1985) Konstruktion der Wirklichkeit und des Begriffs der Objektivität. In: Gumin H. & Mohler A. (eds.) Einführung in den KonstruktivismusOldenbourg, Munich: 1–26. https://cepa.info/1382

Glasersfeld E. von (1985) L’approche constructiviste vers une théorie des représentations. Séminaire sur las représentation 7, CIRADE, Université du Québec, Montreal, Canada. https://cepa.info/1384

Glasersfeld E. von (1986) Kant, constructivism, and the territorial dogma. Continuing the Conversation (ASC Newsletter) 2(5): 3. https://cepa.info/1391

Glasersfeld E. von (1986) Siegfried Schmidts Doppelleben. In: Schmidt S. J. (ed.) Schreibwerke und KopfstückeMuseum Bochum, Bochum. https://cepa.info/1386

Glasersfeld E. von (1986) Steps in the construction of “others” and “reality”. In: Trappl R. (ed.) Power, autonomy, utopias: New approaches toward complex systemsPlenum Press, London: 107–116. https://cepa.info/1389

Glasersfeld E. von (1987) Siegener Gespräche über radikalen Konstruktivismus. In: Schmidt S. J. (ed.) Der Diskurs des radikalen KonstruktivismusSuhrkamp, Frankfurt: 401–440. https://cepa.info/1396

Glasersfeld E. von (1987) The construction of knowledge: Contributions to conceptual semantics. Intersystems Publications, Salinas CA. https://cepa.info/1397

Glasersfeld E. von (1987) Wissen, Sprache und Wirklichkeit. Vieweg, Wiesbaden (Germany). https://cepa.info/1398

Glasersfeld E. von (1988) An exposition of radical constructivism. In: Donaldson R. (ed.) Texts in cyberneticsAmerican Society for Cybernetics, Felton CA. https://cepa.info/1402

Glasersfeld E. von (1988) La lógica de la falibilidad científica. Psicoterapia y Familia 1(2): 41–48. https://cepa.info/1403

Glasersfeld E. von (1988) The reluctance to change a way of thinking. Irish Journal of Psychology 9(1): 83–90. https://cepa.info/1401

Glasersfeld E. von (1989) Cognition, construction of knowledge, and teaching. Synthese 80(1): 121–140. https://cepa.info/1408

Glasersfeld E. von (1989) Commentaire subjectif par un observateur. In: Bednarz N. & Garnier C. (eds.) Construction des savoirsARC, Montreal: 367–371. https://cepa.info/1406

Glasersfeld E. von (1989) Constructivism in Education. In: Husen T. & Postlethwaite T. N. (eds.) International encyclopedia of education. Supplement Volume 1Pergamon Press, Oxford: 162–163. https://cepa.info/1404

Glasersfeld E. von (1989) Facts and the self from a constructivist point of view. Poetics 18(4–5): 435–448. https://cepa.info/1288

Glasersfeld E. von (1989) Linguaggio e comunicazione nel costruttivismo radicale. CLUP, Milan. https://cepa.info/1407

Glasersfeld E. von (1990) An exposition of constructivism: Why some like it radical. In: Davis R. B., Maher C. A. & Noddings N. (eds.) Constructivist views on the teaching and learning of mathematicsNational Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Reston VA: 19–29. https://cepa.info/1415

Glasersfeld E. von (1990) Die Unterscheidung des Beobachters: Versuch einer Auslegung. In: Riegas V. & Vetter C. (eds.) Zur Biologie der KognitionSuhrkamp, Frankfurt: 281–295. https://cepa.info/1413

Glasersfeld E. von (1990) Environment and communication. In: Steffe L. P. & Wood T. (eds.) Transforming children’s mathematics education: International perspectivesLawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale NJ: 30–38. https://cepa.info/1290

Glasersfeld E. von (1991) A constructivist’s view of learning and teaching. In: Duit R., Goldberg F. & Niedderer H. (eds.) Research in physics learning: Theoretical issues and empirical studies – Proceedings of an international workshopIPN, Kiel: 29–39. https://cepa.info/1423

Glasersfeld E. von (1991) Abschied von der Objektivität. In: Watzlawick P. & Krieg P. (eds.) Das Auge des BetrachtersPiper, Munich: 17–30. https://cepa.info/1422

Glasersfeld E. von (1991) Abstraction, re-presentation, and reflection. In: Steffe L. P. (ed.) Epistemological foundations of mathematical experienceSpringer, New York: 45–67. https://cepa.info/1418

Glasersfeld E. von (1991) Fiktion und Realität aus der Perspektive des radikalen Konstruktivismus. In: Roetzer F. & Weibel P. (eds.) Strategien des ScheinsKlaus Boer, Munich: 161–175. https://cepa.info/1421

Glasersfeld E. von (1991) Introduction. In: Glasersfeld E. von (ed.) Radical constructivism in mathematics educationKluwer, Dordrecht: xiii–xx. https://cepa.info/1425

Glasersfeld E. von (1991) Knowing in self-regulating organisms (A constructivist approach). In: Umpleby S. A. & Sadovsky V. N. (eds.) A science of goal formulationHemisphere, New York: 1–8. https://cepa.info/1426

Glasersfeld E. von (1991) Knowing without metaphysics: Aspects of the radical constructivist position. In: Steier F. (ed.) Research and reflexivitySage, London: 12–29. https://cepa.info/1420

Glasersfeld E. von (1991) Radical constructivism in mathematics education. Kluwer, Dordrecht. https://cepa.info/1424

Glasersfeld E. von (1992) A constructivist approach to experiential foundations of mathematical concepts. In: Hills S. (ed.) History and philosophy of science in science educationQueen’s University, Kingston: 551–571. https://cepa.info/1433

Glasersfeld E. von (1992) Apprendimento e insegnamento dal punto di vista del costruttivismo. L’Educazione Matematica III 2(1): 27–39. https://cepa.info/1429

Glasersfeld E. von (1992) Aspetti del costruttivismo: Vico, Berkeley, Jean Piaget. In: Ceruti M. (ed.) Evoluzione e conoscenzaLubrina, Bergamo: 421–432. https://cepa.info/1427

Glasersfeld E. von (1992) Das Ende einer grossen Illusion [The end of a grand illusion]. In: Fischer H. R., Retzer A. & Schweitzer J. (eds.) Das Ende der grossen EntwürfeSuhrkamp, Frankfurt, Germany: 85–98. https://cepa.info/1436

Glasersfeld E. von (1992) El constructivismo radical. Sistemas Familiares 8(3): 49–54. https://cepa.info/1430

Glasersfeld E. von (1992) Notes constructivistes sur l’éducation. Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche sur l’apprentissage et le développement en éducation, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal (Canada). https://cepa.info/1432

Glasersfeld E. von (1992) On manifestly (or, at least, apparently) timeless objectivity. Philosophy of Mathematics Education Newsletter (POME) 6: 12–13. https://cepa.info/1431

Glasersfeld E. von (1992) Questions and answers about radical constructivism. In: Pearsall M. K. (ed.) Scope, sequence, and coordination of secondary school science. Vol. II: Relevant researchThe National Science Teachers Association, Washington DC: 169–182. https://cepa.info/1439

Glasersfeld E. von (1992) Talking, teaching, and meaning. In: Kamm D. (ed.) Aufbruch in neue LernweltenExpedition 92, Munich: 64–67. https://cepa.info/1434

Glasersfeld E. von (1992) Why I consider myself a cybernetician. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 1(1): 21–25. https://cepa.info/1428

Glasersfeld E. von (1993) Brief Response to P. R. Masani. Kybernetes 22(7): 58–59. https://cepa.info/1447

Glasersfeld E. von (1993) Das Radikale in Jean Piagets Konstruktivismus [The radical in Jean Piaget’s constructivism]. In: Duit R. & Gräber W. (eds.) Kognitive Entwicklung und Lernen der Naturwissenschaften [Cognitive development and learning in the natural science]IPN, Kiel, Germany: 46–62. https://cepa.info/1443

Glasersfeld E. von (1993) Learning and adaptation in the theory of constructivism. Communication and Cognition 26(3/4): 393–402. https://cepa.info/1446

Glasersfeld E. von (1993) Letter to the Editor (Response to Matthews). Journal of Science Education and Technology 2(4): 511. https://cepa.info/1449

Glasersfeld E. von (1993) Nicht bekehrt, aber geläutert. Soziologische Revue 16(3): pp. 288–290. https://cepa.info/1441

Glasersfeld E. von (1993) Notes on the concept of change. Cahiers de la Fondation Archives Jean Piaget 13: 91–96. https://cepa.info/1445

Glasersfeld E. von (1993) Questions rather than answers. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 1(4): 57–59. https://cepa.info/1442

Glasersfeld E. von (1993) Response to David Johnson. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 2(2): 55. https://cepa.info/1448

Glasersfeld E. von (1993) Suggerimenti costruttivisti per i processi formativi – La costruzione della conoscenza e il rapporto con l’altro. In: Paolo Perticari (ed.) Della conversazioneGuaraldi, Rimini (Italy): 19–35. https://cepa.info/1450

Glasersfeld E. von (1994) A radical constructivist view of basic mathematical concepts. In: Ernest E. (ed.) Constructing mathematical knowledge: Epistemology and mathematics educationFalmer Press, London: 5–7. https://cepa.info/1456

Glasersfeld E. von (1994) Cosa si prova quando s’impara?. In: Perticari P. & Sclavi M. (eds.) Il senso dell’imparareAnabasi, Milan: 17–25. https://cepa.info/1459

Glasersfeld E. von (1994) Das Hervorbringen von Wissen und Wirklichkeit. In: Heines K.-D. (ed.) Menschsein in unserer Zeit – Der Zeitgeist auf dem Prüfstand. Stiftung DrHeines, Bremen: 107–117. https://cepa.info/1458

Glasersfeld E. von (1994) Die Struktur des individuellen Wissens. In: Felixberger P. (ed.) Aufbruch in neue LernweltenPassagen, Vienna: 33–39. https://cepa.info/1452

Glasersfeld E. von (1994) Jean Piagets konstruktivistisches Modell: Wissen und Lernen. In: Rusch G. & Schmidt S. J. (eds.) Delfin 1994Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main: 16–42. https://cepa.info/1455

Glasersfeld E. von (1994) La construcción del conocimiento. In: Schnitman D. F. (ed.) Nuevos paradigmas, cultura y subjetividadPaidos, Buenos Aires: 115–128. https://cepa.info/1457

Glasersfeld E. von (1994) Pourquoi le constructivisme doit-il être redical?. Revue des Sciences de l’Éducation 20(1): 21–27. https://cepa.info/1453

Glasersfeld E. von (1994) Que pouvons nous savoir do notre connaissance? [What can we know about our knowledge?]. In: Elkaïm M. (ed.) La thérapie familiale en changement [Changing family therapy]Les Empécheurs de Penser en Rond, Brussels: 191–195. https://cepa.info/1451

Glasersfeld E. von (1995) A constructivist approach to teaching. In: Steffe L. P. & Gale J. (eds.) Constructivism in educationErlbaum, Hillsdale: 3–15. https://cepa.info/1460

Glasersfeld E. von (1995) A rejoinder to Otte. Philosophy of Mathematics Newsletter 8: 18–19. https://cepa.info/1463

Glasersfeld E. von (1995) Aspekte einer konstruktivistischen Didaktik [Aspects of constructivist didactics]. In: Lehren und Lernen als konstruktive TätigkeitRegional Institute for school and secondary education, Soest: 7–14. https://cepa.info/1467

Glasersfeld E. von (1995) Die Wurzeln des “Radikalen” am Konstruktivismus. In: Fischer H. R. (ed.) Die Wirklichkeit des KonstruktivismusCarl Auer, Heidelberg: 35–45. https://cepa.info/1464

Glasersfeld E. von (1995) Introduction: Aspects of constructivism. In: Fosnot C. T. (ed.) Constructivism: Theory perspectives, and practiceColumbia University, Teacher College Press: 3–7. https://cepa.info/1468

Glasersfeld E. von (1995) Radical constructivism: A way of knowing and learning. Falmer Press, London. https://cepa.info/1462

Glasersfeld E. von (1996) Aspectos del constructivismo radical [Aspects of radical constructivism]. In: Pakman M. (ed.) Construcciones de la experiencia humanaGedisa Editorial, Barcelona: 23–49. https://cepa.info/1479

Glasersfeld E. von (1996) Aspects of radical constructivism and its educational recommendations. In: Steffe L. P., Nesher P., Cobb P., Goldin G. A. & Greer B. (eds.) Theories of mathematical learningLawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale: 307–314. https://cepa.info/1473

Glasersfeld E. von (1996) Die Welt als “Black Box”. In: Braitenberg V. & Hosp I. (eds.) Die Natur ist unser Modell von ihr [Nature is our model of it]. Proceedings of the Bolzano Meeting 1995Rowohlt, Reinbeck: 15–25. https://cepa.info/1476

Glasersfeld E. von (1996) Footnotes to “Many faces of constructivism”. Educational Researcher 25(6): 19. https://cepa.info/1472

Glasersfeld E. von (1996) Le constructivisme radical et quelques-unes de ses recommen-dations en matière d’éducation. Télémaque 6: 37–44. https://cepa.info/1482

Glasersfeld E. von (1996) L’interprétation constructiviste de l’épistémologie génétique. In: Mantovani de Assiz O.Z., de Assis M.C. & Ramozzi-Chiarottino Z. (eds.) Piaget, teoria e pratica. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Genetic Epistemology, 1994University of Sao Paulo & University of Campinas, Aguas de Lindoia (Brazil): 176–182. https://cepa.info/1474

Glasersfeld E. von (1996) Réponse à S. Johsua (Response to S. Johsua). Didaskalia 8: 195. https://cepa.info/1477

Glasersfeld E. von (1996) The view from here. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 3(4): 18–19. https://cepa.info/1481

Glasersfeld E. von (1996) Über Grenzen des Begreifens [About the limits of understanding]. In: Glasersfeld E. von (ed.) Grenzen des BegreifensBenteli Verlag , Bern: 7–30. https://cepa.info/1470

Glasersfeld E. von (1997) Amplification of a constructivist perspective. Issues in Education 3(2): 203–209. https://cepa.info/1493

Glasersfeld E. von (1997) Homage to Jean Piaget. Irish Journal of Psychology 18(3): 293–306. https://cepa.info/1492

Glasersfeld E. von (1997) Kleine Geschichte des Konstruktivismus [Brief history of constructivism]. Österreichische Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaft 8(1): 9–17. https://cepa.info/1488

Glasersfeld E. von (1997) Wege des Wissens [Ways of knowing: Constructivist explorations of thinking]. Carl Auer, Heidelberg. https://cepa.info/1484

Glasersfeld E. von (1998) Anticipation in the constructivist theory of cognition. In: Dubois D. M. (ed.) Computing anticipatory systemsAmerican Institute of Physics, Woodbury NY: 38–47. https://cepa.info/1496

Glasersfeld E. von (1998) Die Radikal-Konstruktivistische Wissenstheorie. Ethik und Sozialwissenschaften 9(4): 503–511. https://cepa.info/1500

Glasersfeld E. von (1998) Konstruktivismus statt Erkenntnistheorie [Constructivism instead of theory of knowledge]. In: Hug T. (ed.) Technologiekritik und MedienpädagogikSchneider Verlag, Hohengehren: 9–21. https://cepa.info/1495

Glasersfeld E. von (1998) Was im Kopf eines anderen vorgeht, können wir nie wissen [We cannot know what goes on in another’s head]. Interview by B. Pörksen. Communicatio Socialis 31(4): 386–404. https://cepa.info/1499

Glasersfeld E. von (1998) Welten konstruieren, die für alle gangbar sind [On constructing worlds that are viable for everyone]. Dialogue edited by Rudolf Maresch. Telepolis Online, 12 December 1998. https://cepa.info/1498

Glasersfeld E. von (1998) Zuerst muß man das Lernen lernen [First one must learn to learn]. In: Voß R. (ed.) SchulVisionen – Theorie und Praxis systemisch-konstruktivistischer PädagogikCarl Auer, Heidelberg: 33–43. https://cepa.info/1502

Glasersfeld E. von (1999) A model for the construction of elementary concepts. In: Dubois D. M. (ed.) Computing anticipatory systemsAmerican Institute of Physics, Woodbury NY: 45–52. https://cepa.info/1504

Glasersfeld E. von (1999) Der unbehagliche Blick aufs Wissen [The unsettling look at knowledge]. Book review of “Die Zähmung des Blicks” by S. J. Schmidt. Soziologische Revue 22(3): 287–292. https://cepa.info/1511

Glasersfeld E. von (1999) Il costruttivismo e le sue radici [Constructivism and its roots]. Oikos. https://cepa.info/1506

Glasersfeld E. von (1999) Jean Piaget’s epistemology. Comment TA15 C10 in Karl Jaspers Forum. https://cepa.info/1505

Glasersfeld E. von (1999) Konstruktivismus und Unterricht [Constructivism and instruction]. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft 2(4): 499–506. https://cepa.info/1515

Glasersfeld E. von (1999) Konstruktivistische Anregungen für Lehrer: Was in Bezug auf Sprache zu bedenken wäre [Constructivist suggestions for teachers: What should be considered in regard to language]. In: Renk E. (ed.) Lernen und Leben aus der Welt im Kopf, Konstruktivismus in der Schule [Learning and living from the world in one’s head, Constructivism in school]Luchterhand, Neuwied: 5–18. https://cepa.info/1516

Glasersfeld E. von (1999) Le Moigne’s defense of constructivism. In: GRASCE (ed.) Entre systémique et complexité, chemin faisant [Between systemics and complexity – making the way]Presses Universitaires de France, Paris: 85–90. https://cepa.info/1512

Glasersfeld E. von (1999) Review of "Social constructivism as a philosophy of mathematics" by Paul Ernest. Zentralblatt für Didaktik der Mathematik 99(2): 71–73. https://cepa.info/1507

Glasersfeld E. von (2000) A proposito dell’operare costitutivo [About constitutive operating]. Methodologia Working Papers 122: 1–2. https://cepa.info/1524

Glasersfeld E. von (2000) Entretien avec E. v. G. Interview by Claudie Natale Schouchana. Thérapie Familiale 21(1): 27–32. https://cepa.info/1518

Glasersfeld E. von (2000) Gesellschaft als subjektive Erfahrung [Society as subjective experience]. Contribition to Festschrift for Siegfried Schmidt at http://www.sjschmidt.net. https://cepa.info/1522

Glasersfeld E. von (2000) Problems of constructivism. In: Steffe L. P. & Thompson P. W. (eds.) Radical constructivism in action: Building on the pioneering work of Ernst von GlasersfeldRoutledge/Falmer, London: 3–9. https://cepa.info/1520

Glasersfeld E. von (2001) Stellungnahme eines Konstruktivisten zur Wissenschaft [A constructivist’s perspective on science]. In: Hug T. (ed.) Einführung in die Wissenschaftstheorie und WissenschaftsforschungSchneider Verlag, Hohengehren: 34–47. https://cepa.info/1534

Glasersfeld E. von (2001) The radical constructivist view of science. Special Issue “The Impact of Radical Constructivism on Science” edited by Alexander Riegler. Foundations of Science 6(1–3): 31–43. https://cepa.info/1536

Glasersfeld E. von (2002) Cybernetics and the theory of knowledge. In: UNESCO Encyclopedia, Section on System Science and CyberneticsEolss Publishers, Oxford UK. https://cepa.info/1542

Glasersfeld E. von (2002) Interview by Reinhard Voss. In: Voss R. (ed.) Unterricht aus konstruktivistischer Sicht [Instruction from a constructivist perspective]Hermann Luchterhand, Kriftel: 26–32. https://cepa.info/1540

Glasersfeld E. von (2002) Was heisst Lernen aus konstruktivistischer Sicht?. In: Voss R. (ed.) Unterricht aus konstruktivistischer Sicht [Instruction from a constructivist perspective]Hermann Luchterhand, Kriftel: 214–223. https://cepa.info/1541

Glasersfeld E. von (2003) A Source Book for Teachers and Teacher Education. Review of D. Lesh, Beyond Constructivism. Zentralblatt für Didaktik der Mathematik 35(6): 325–329. https://cepa.info/1548

Glasersfeld E. von (2003) A proposito della viabilità. Methodologia Working Papers 158. https://cepa.info/1546

Glasersfeld E. von (2003) Foreword. In: Butz M. V., Olivier S. & Gérard P. (eds.) Anticipatory behavior in adaptive systems: Foundations, theories and systemsSpringer, Berlin: v-vi. https://cepa.info/1545

Glasersfeld E. von (2004) Alle radici del costruttivismo radicale (Interview with L. Cardellini). Informatica & Scuola 12(3): 4–8. https://cepa.info/1553

Glasersfeld E. von (2004) Constructivism. In: Craighead W. E. & Nemeroff C. B. (eds.) The concise Corsini encyclopedia of psychology and behavioral scienceJohn Wiley & Sons, Hoboken: 219–220. https://cepa.info/1550

Glasersfeld E. von (2004) Prefazione: Aspetti costruttiivistici nei dialoghi di Alexandr Bogdanov. Odradek, Rome. https://cepa.info/1554

Glasersfeld E. von (2007) Aspects of constructivism: Vico, Berkeley, Piaget. Chapter 8 in: Key works in radical constructivism (edited by Marie Larochelle)Sense Publishers, Rotterdam: 91–99. https://cepa.info/1569

Glasersfeld E. von (2008) Interview with Innsbruck newspaper, March 2008. March 2008. https://cepa.info/1561

Glasersfeld E. von (2008) Unverbindliche Erinnerungen. Skizzen aus einem fernen Leben. Folio, Vienna. https://cepa.info/260

Glasersfeld E. von (2009) Partial memories. Sketches from an improbable life. Imprint Academic, Exeter. https://cepa.info/1565

Hashimoto W. (2011) Autopoiesis, observation and informatics: Lessons from the development of autopoietic systems theory in japan. triple C 9(2): 414-423. https://cepa.info/3620

Hennig C. (2010) Mathematical models and reality: A constructivist perspective. Foundations of Science 15(1): 29–48. https://cepa.info/363

Herr C. M. (2015) The big picture: Connecting design, second order cybernetics and radical constructivism. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 22(2–3): 107–114. https://cepa.info/2468

Herr C. M. (2019) Constructing cybernetic thinking, Design, and education. In: Fischer T. & Herr C. M. (eds.) Design cybernetics: Navigating the newSpringer, Cham: 153–170. https://cepa.info/6408

Izmirli I. M. (2014) Wittengstein’s language games and forms of life from a social constructivist point of view. American Journal of Educational Research 2(5): 291–298. https://cepa.info/2949

Kordeš U. (2016) Going Beyond Theory: Constructivism and Empirical Phenomenology. Constructivist Foundations 11(2): 375–385. https://cepa.info/2589

Lochhead J. & Glasersfeld E. von (1996) Pourquoi des étudiant(e)s doué(e)s se détournent-ils des sciences?. In: Giordan A., Martinand J.-L. & Raichvarg D. (eds.) Actes des XVIIIes Journées Internationales sur la communication, l’éducation et la culture scientifiques et industriellesCentre Jean Franco, Chamonix France: 41–46. https://cepa.info/1478

Lünenborg M. (2017) Von Mediengattungen zu kontingenten Hybriden: Konstruktivistische und performativitätstheoretische Perspektiven für die Journalistik. M&K Medien & Kommunikationswissenschaft 65(2): 367–384. https://cepa.info/6019

Martin R. J. (2015) Second-Order cybernetics, Radical Constructivism, and the Biology of Cognition: Paradigms Struggling to Bring About Change. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 22(2–3): 169–182. https://cepa.info/2467

Matthews M. R. (2014) Radical constructivism: Ernst von Glasersfeld. In: Phillips D. C. (ed.) Encyclopedia of educational theory and philosophySage, New York: 690–693. https://cepa.info/4525

Mazzoni J. & Castañon G. (2014) Construtivismo radical ou trivial?. Psicologia em Pesquisa (UFJF) 8: 230–240. https://cepa.info/5964

McGee K. (2005) Enactive Cognitive Science. Part 1: History and Research Themes. Constructivist Foundations 1(1): 19–34. https://cepa.info/4

Müller A. (2017) Jean Piaget und die Erfindung von Radikalem Konstruktivismus und Kybernetik Zweiter Ordnung. In: Kanzian C., Kletzl S., Mitterer J. & Neges K. (eds.) Realism – relativism – constructivismDe Gruyter, Berlin: 73–82. https://cepa.info/4200

Müller K. H. & Riegler A. (2014) A New Course of Action. Constructivist Foundations 10(1): 1–6. https://cepa.info/1147

Müller K. H. (2010) The Radical Constructivist Movement and Its Network Formations. Constructivist Foundations 6(1): 31–39. https://cepa.info/170

Müller K. H. (2011) The Two Epistemologies of Ernst von Glasersfeld. Constructivist Foundations 6(2): 220–226. https://cepa.info/203

Müller K. H. (2017) Two ways of exploring the world. In: In: Kanzian C., Kletzl S., Mitterer J. & Neges K. (eds.) Realism – relativism – constructivismDe Gruyter, Berlin: 83–99. https://cepa.info/4241

Nixon G. M. (2013) Scientism, Philosophy and Brain-Based Learning. Northwest Journal of Teacher Education 11(1): 113–144. https://cepa.info/6984

Norton A. & Alibali M. W. (2019) Mathematics in action. In: Norton A. & Alibali M. W. (eds.) Constructing number: Research in mathematics educationSpringer, Cham: 1–10. https://cepa.info/5724

Nowak M., Castellini C. & Massironi C. (2018) Applying Radical Constructivism to Machine Learning: A Pilot Study in Assistive Robotics. Constructivist Foundations 13(2): 250–262. https://cepa.info/4615

Pasztor A. (2007) Radical Constructivism has been Viable. On the Democratization of Math Education. Constructivist Foundations 2(2-3): 98–106. https://cepa.info/36

Peschl M. F., Bottaro G., Hartner-Tiefenthaler M. & Rötzer K. (2014) Learning How to Innovate as a Socio-epistemological Process of Co-creation: Towards a Constructivist Teaching Strategy for Innovation. Constructivist Foundations 9(3): 421–433. https://cepa.info/1111

Quale A. (2014) Ethics: A Radical-constructivist Approach. Constructivist Foundations 9(2): 256–261. https://cepa.info/1043

Quale A. (2015) Religion: A Radical-Constructivist Perspective. Constructivist Foundations 11(1): 119–126. https://cepa.info/2233

Raskin J. D. (2011) Ernst von Glasersfeld and Psychotherapeutic Change. Constructivist Foundations 6(2): 235–238. https://cepa.info/205

Ray T. & Clegg S. (2007) Can We Make Sense of Knowledge Management’s Tangible Rainbow? A Radical Constructivist Alternative. Prometheus 25(2): 161–185. https://cepa.info/5417

Ray T. (2009) Rethinking Polanyi’s concept of tacit knowledge: From personal knowing to imagined institutions. Minerva 47(1): 75–92. https://cepa.info/7059

Richards J. & Glasersfeld E. von (1979) The control of perception and the construction of reality. Dialectica 33(1): 37–58. https://cepa.info/1345

Riegler A. & Gash H. (2011) Legacy of a Great Thinker. Editorial for the Commemorative Issue for Ernst von Glasersfeld. Constructivist Foundations 6(2): 135–137. https://cepa.info/184

Riegler A. (2003) Whose anticipations?. In: Butz M., Sigaud O. & Gerard P. (eds.) Anticipatory behavior in adaptive learning systems: Foundations, theories, and systems. Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 2684Springer, Dordrecht: 11–22. https://cepa.info/4130

Rodrigues D. B. (2015) As compreensões do construtivismo de Ernst Von Glasersfeld e John Fossa: Intermediando um diálogo em busca de novas significações. PhD Thesis, Centro de Educação, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brasil. https://cepa.info/5962

Saalmann G. (2007) Arguments Opposing the Radicalism of Radical Constructivism. Constructivist Foundations 3(1): 1–6 & 16–18. https://cepa.info/43

Scholl A. (2002) Einleitung [Introduction]. In: Scholl A. (ed.) Systemtheorie und Konstruktivismus in der Kommunikationswissenschaft [Systems theory and constructivism in the study of communication]UVK, Konstanz: 7–18. https://cepa.info/1867

Scholl A. (2010) Radical Constructivism in Communication Science. Constructivist Foundations 6(1): 51–57. https://cepa.info/172

Scholl A. (2012) Author’s Response: What Constructivism Does not Say. Constructivist Foundations 8(1): 15–18. https://cepa.info/796

Scholl A. (2012) Between Realism and Constructivism? Luhmann’s Ambivalent Epistemological Standpoint. Constructivist Foundations 8(1): 5–12. https://cepa.info/793

Scott D. W. (2017) Music as Semiotic Eigenbehavior. Constructivist Foundations 12(3): 342–352. https://cepa.info/4189

Sheppard M. J. (2020) A case study of a radical constructivist approach to teaching innovation. Journal of Education for Business 95(8): 559–566. https://cepa.info/6893

Smock C. D. & Glasersfeld E. von (1974) Epistemology and education: The implications of radical constructivism for knowledge acquisition. Report #14. Follow Through Publications, Athens GA. https://cepa.info/1323

Steffe L. P. (2007) Radical Constructivism: A Scientific Research Program. Constructivist Foundations 2(2-3): 41–49. https://cepa.info/28

Steffe L. P., Glasersfeld E. von, Richards J. & Cobb P. (1983) Children’s counting types: Philosophy, theory, and application. Praeger, New York. https://cepa.info/1368

Taylor P. C. (2015) Constructivism. In: Gunstone R. (ed.) Encyclopaedia of science educationSpringer, New York: 218–224. https://cepa.info/6796

Thompson P. W. (2014) Constructivism in mathematics education. In: Lerman S. (ed.) Encyclopedia of mathematics educationSpringer, Berlin: 96–102. https://cepa.info/2952

Thompson P. W. (2020) Constructivism in mathematics education. In: Lerman S. (ed.) Encyclopedia of mathematics education. Second editionSpringer, Cham: 128–134. https://cepa.info/6891

Tobin K. (2007) Key contributors: Ernst von Glasersfeld’s radical constructivism. Cultural Studies of Science Education 2(3): 529–538. https://cepa.info/4005

Troadec B. (2007) Constructivism, Culture, and Cognitive Development: What Kind of Schemes for a Cultural Psychologist?. Constructivist Foundations 3(1): 38–51. https://cepa.info/56

Ulrich C., Tillema E. S., Hackenberg A. J. & Norton A. (2014) Constructivist Model Building: Empirical Examples From Mathematics Education. Constructivist Foundations 9(3): 328–339. https://cepa.info/1084

Walshe G. (2020) Radical Constructivism – von Glasersfeld. In: Akpan B. & Kennedy T. J. (eds.) Science education in theory and practiceSpringer, Cham: 359–371. https://cepa.info/7260

Wright B. (1991) An application of the epistemology of radical constructivism to the study of learning. The Australian Educational Researcher 18(1): 75–95. https://cepa.info/5424

Ziemke T. (2001) The construction of “reality” in the robot: Constructivist perspectives on situated AI and adaptive robotics. Foundations of Science 6(1): 163–233. https://cepa.info/4522

d’Agnese V. (2015) ‘And they lived happily ever after’: the fairy tale of radical constructivism and von Glasersfeld’s ethical disengagement. Ethics and Education 10(2): 131–151. https://cepa.info/2631